Monday, September 7, 2009

chapter review

What I have learnt in this chapter is:What is the project? A project is a temporary effort or work undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. This means a work that we do in a period of time. For example, one of the projects in IIUM is implementation wireless connection. The important person in a project is project manager. What is project manager? Project manager is the person responsible for working the project sponsor, the project team, and other people involved in a project to meet project goals. However, in order to make successful project, the project managers have to consider into triple constraint of project management which is; scope goal, cost goal, and time goal. Plus, project manager also have responsibilities like planning, scheduling, coordinating and working with various people. Furthermore, they must have some other skill set in order to be a leader in a project. In this chapter also, I have learnt the term of project management and its framework. Under project management framework, there are nine knowledge areas known as core knowledge areas (time, cost, scope and quality) and four facilitating knowledge areas (human resource, risk, procurement, and communication) as well as project integration management that affected by all other knowledge areas. Moreover, in chapter 1 includes the project management tool and techniques. Obviously, in project management we must have some tools or skills such as WBS, Gantt chart and so on.

What I have learnt in this chapter is: In this chapter, I have understood the view of project management and how it applies to information technology projects. I also learnt to concept of organization, the four frame of organization, organizational structures and its culture. Here I want to brief a little bit about three sphere model of system management. The model consist three concepts which are business organization and technology. I want to give an example according this concept which is implementation of wireless connection in IIUM. Firstly we have to consider the business concept; is the wireless connection costly? Where IIUM gets budget for this project? Under organization concept, who will train the person to facilitate the project? How the project affected the student and IIUM staff? Lastly under technology concept, what application that IIUM use for this project? What hardware specification that IIUM use for this project? Furthermore, in this chapter also I have learnt the organization frames which are structural frame, political frame, human resource frame, and symbolic frame. Plus, under organizational structures consist three basic structures; functional, project and matrix.

Under this chapter I have learnt: The five project management process group, the typical level of activity for each and interaction among the process group. Moreover, I have learnt how the project management process groups relate to the Project management knowledge areas. Firstly, what is process? Process is a series of actions directed toward particular result. Project management can be viewed as interconnected process because it includes: initiating processes, planning processes, executing processes, monitoring and controlling processes, and closing processes. In order to understand more about project management process group, there is case study which is JWD Consulting’s project management intranet site. Under project initiation, it includes recognizing and starting a new project or project phase. The main goal to formally select and start off the projects and the key output from this stage is assigning the project manager, identifying key stakeholder, completing a business case, and completing a project charter and get signatures on it. Under the project planning, the main purpose is to guide the execution and the key output includes the team contract, a project scope statement, a work breakdown structure (WBS), a project schedule and a list of prioritized risks. Then, project execution usually takes most the time and resources and project manager must use their leadership skills to handle the group members, and challenge that occur during project execution. After execution stage is monitoring and controlling stage and it involves measuring process toward objectives, deviation from plan and taking correction actions. Moreover, the outputs include performance reports, requested changes and updates to various plans. Lastly, project closing involves gaining stakeholder and customer acceptance or the final project and the output include project archives and lessons learned as well as the organizational process assets.

In this chapter is actually the continuation from chapter three but it explain more in this chapter. Chapter 4 also describes an overall framework for project integration management as it relates to project management knowledge areas and project life cycle. There are various process under project integration management which are; developing the project charter, developing the preliminary project scope statement, developing the project management plan, directing and managing the project execution, monitoring and controlling the project work, performing integrated change control and closing the project. I also learnt the strategic planning and project selection and it involves determining long term objectives, predicting future trends and projecting the need for new product and services. Usually some organization use S.W.O.T analysis to perform the strategic planning and as part of the strategic plan is to identify the potential project, use some realistic method for the project and formalize project initiation by issuing a project charter. And the most important criteria for selecting the project is needs, funds and will for making the project. Moreover, we can categorize the IT project by addressing the problem, opportunity and directive. In this chapter also elaborated the financial analysis of the project and there are three primary methods for determining the projected financial value of the project which are net present value (NPV), return on investment and payback analysis. Furthermore, chapter 4 elaborated more about the process of project management such as project scope statement, project management plan, project execution, the tool and technique for project execution , monitoring and controlling project work, and project closing.

Under this chapter I learnt about the elements that make good project scope management, its process and content. Under project scope management processes contain; scope planning, scope definition, WBS, scope verification and scope control. The most important part in creating scope management is WBS. What is WBS? WBS is a deliverable oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project. Under scope verification, it involves formal acceptance of the completed project scope by stakeholders. And this acceptance often achieved by a customer inspection and then sign off on key deliverables. Plus, scope control involves the controlling changes to the project scope and the goals are to influence the factors that cause changes, to assure changes and manage changes when they occur.

Under this chapter elaborated the importance of project schedules and good project time management. It also defines the activities as the basis for developing project schedule as well as understands the relationship between estimating resources and project schedules. Chapter 4 also explains various tools and techniques to help project manager mange the duration of project. Under project time management process contains activity definition, activity sequencing, activity resource estimating, activity duration estimating, schedule development and schedule control. What more important in this chapter is network diagram. Network diagram is a schematic display of the logical relationships among or sequencing of project activities. Another technique for managing time in project is Gantt chart and it provide a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing the project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a calendar format. Then, critical path method is widely use in most of organization and it is a network diagramming techniques used to predict total project duration. It is for project that determines the earliest time by which the project can be completed and the critical path is the longest path through the network diagram and has the least amount of slack or float.


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